Chapter 1 – Introduction to Sunless tanning

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INTRODUCTION TO THE SUNLESS TANNING INDUSTRY

Sunless tanning, also known as airbrush tanning or spray tanning, is the application of a specially formulated solution which is misted over the entire body. The solution is made with the active ingredient dihydroxyacetone (DHA), which causes a chemical reaction with the outermost layer of the skin (more on that in the next chapter).

Sunless tanning is one of the fastest growing services within the health and beauty industry. It also possesses one of the greatest returns on investment. Each quart of solution has the potential to give you around 1,000% return, while each gallon will give you over 4,000% return! There are not many other services where you can recoup your initial investment this quickly.

The sunless tanning industry, as a whole, has exploded over the past decade. With continued research and technological advancements, sunless tanning solution now offers a “natural looking” tan. This once frowned upon “orange” effect has grown into a natural looking substitute for sun-seekers everywhere.

SUNLESS TANNING OPPORTUNITIES

Tanning salons traditionally only offered UV-based tanning options. Now almost every tanning salon has incorporated sunless spray tanning into their business. This helps to increase the services that they offer, while also reaching out to a new demographic of clientele.

Day spas and salons have had success adding spray tanning to their menu of services. Most days spas are conscientious when it comes to the products that they use, paying special attention to the ingredients. Since Sjolie Sunless offers all naturally derived ingredients, it is a natural fit!

Estheticians, cosmetologist, and hair dressers are able to market this new service to their existing customer base with great results. Sunless tanning is a natural fit for these trained professionals, extending their services currently offered.

Medical spas main focus is the health and well-being of their clients. As growing concerns rise from the effects of sun-tanning, these spas are looking for an alternative to offer their customers; sunless tanning.

Gyms and health clubs are able to incorporate sunless tanning into their business model. Many of these locations will offer spray tanning during certain times or dates, and will sign up a list of clients beforehand. Others have found success in adding sunless tanning to their monthly service charge, this way they are guaranteed payment in advance. Gyms and health clubs have also been successful in marketing to body building competitions.

Chapter 10 – Preparing for the perfect sunless session

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Where to spray

It is important to have a planned-out work space where you wish to spray your clients. Most salons and spas will have a dedicated room for spray tanning. Mobile technicians should use a mobile tanning tent, to be sure to keep the over-spray confined to a small area. A well -ventilated area is the ideal spot for spray tanning. No matter where you spray, you should always have an over spray extraction fan system.

Extraction fan

Incorporating an extraction system into your sunless business is beneficial for you and your clients and highly recommended for anyone providing a sunless service. The extraction system ensures the air is safe and clean for you and your client, and aids in reducing the amount of spray tan mist landing on walls, furniture, clothing and other surfaces. Remember, DHA is approved for external use only.

What to have on hand

Your spray tanning area should be a clean, sterile workspace. Keep these items on hand at all times:

  1. Solution and other sunless additives offered
  2. Machine and tent
  3. Extraction system and replacement filters
  4. Client protection – nose filters, eye protections, lip balm, hair nets, sticky feet, disposable undergarments, etc.
  5. Baby powder/cornstarch used as drying powder
  6. Microfiber car pad to fix any sunless drip or mistake
  7. Client release forms and questionnaire
  8. Client care cards and informational brochures
  9. Towels – dark, variety of sizes (clean towel for each client)
  10. Extension cord
  11. Hair ties
  12. Disposable gloves
  13. Tissue

Purchase a 20 x 20 box fan from your local hardware store. Along with fan, purchase a 20 x 20 x 1 air filter. Attach the filter to the back of the fan using tape or zip ties. The fan will be placed in the back of the tent, sucking air from inside the tent and blowing outward. The over spray will then pass through the filter before being dispersed out the fan.

Chapter 11 – Spray Tanning Technique

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Before you begin, it is important to realize each technician will develop their own technique once they begin spraying. You will find what works for you, and as long as you are achieving good results, your technique is sufficient. Your technique will be based upon speed, distance and trigger pressure.

A general guideline for all technicians: The client should keep arms up and away from sides throughout the sunless session. All initial passes in an area should begin at the center and then alternate left to right of the initial central pass. Dry your client as you move through your passes, this will ensure the client is dry and comfortable once the session is finished.

 

Step 1 : Front of Leg

Starting with the waistline begin spraying one pass down the center of the front of leg. As you approach the bend of the ankle, smoothly release the trigger and pull away from the client’s body. Use the same pass and release on the left of your initial pass, and again to the right of your initial pass. Dry.

*Repeat process on the front of other leg

Step 2 : Inside of Leg

Starting at the top of the inside of the inner thigh begin spraying one pass down the center of the inner leg. As you approach the side of ankle, smoothly release the trigger and pull away from the client’s body. Use the same pass and release on the left of your initial pass, and again to the right or your initial pass. Dry.

*Repeat process on the inside of other leg

Step 3 : Outer leg

Starting at the waistline begin spraying one pass down the center of the outside of the leg. As you approach the side of ankle, smoothly release the trigger and pull away from the client’s body. Use the same pass and release on the left of your initial pass, and again to the right or your initial pass. Dry.

*Repeat process on the outside of other leg

Step 4 : Back of leg

Starting at the waistline begin spraying one pass down the center of the back of the leg. As you approach the back of ankle, smoothly release the trigger and pull away from the client’s body. Use the same pass and release on the left of your initial pass, and again to the right or your initial pass. Dry.

*Repeat process on the back of other leg

Step 5 : Side of Upper Body

Raise the clients arm up and bend at the elbow so the arm is extended over the head. Beginning at the should use the “Y” spray pattern beginning in the air just off the breast and in one pass end at the waistline. Dry.

*Repeat process on the other side of the body

Step 6 : Back

Starting at the base of the hairline, at the back of the head, spray one pass down the center of the clients back stopping at the waist. Dry.

Back (left side)- Begin at the shoulder left and adjacent to the previous central line. Using the “Y” pattern, continue the pass down to the waistline. To the left of your previous pass, use the “Y” pattern and continue the pass down to the waistline. It is important to ensure all parallel lines are in a consistent overlay Dry.

Back (right side) – Begin at the shoulder right and adjacent to the previous central line. Using the “Y” pattern, continue the pass down to the waistline. To the right of your previous pass, use the “Y” pattern and continue the pass down to the waistline. It is important to ensure all parallel lines are in a consistent overlay Dry.

Step 7 : Front of Chest / Torso

Begin at the shoulder, left and adjacent to the neck. Using the “Y” spray pattern, continue the pass down to the waistline over the belly button.  To the left of your previous pass, use the “Y” spray pattern and continue the pass down to the waistline. It is important to ensure all parallel lines are in a consistent overlay. Dry.

Begin at the shoulder, right and adjacent to the neck. Using the “Y” spray pattern, continue the pass down to the waistline over the belly button. To the right of your previous pass, use the “Y” spray pattern and continue the pass down to the waistline. It is important to ensure all parallel lines are in a consistent overlay Dry.

Step 8 : Arm

Top of arm – Making sure that the top of the wrist is square to you, begin just above the shoulder (into the air) and use one continuous pass down the arm, smoothly release the trigger and pull away from the clients arm at the wrist. Dry.

Inside of arm – Begin just above the shoulder (into the air) and use one continuous pass down the arm to the outside of the initial pass, smoothly release the trigger and pull away from the clients arm at the wrist. Dry.

Back of arm – Begin just above the shoulder (into the air) and use one continuous pass down the arm to the outside of the initial pass, smoothly release the trigger and pull away from the clients arm at the wrist. Dry.

Step 9 : Face

 

Front of face – Make sure all hair is pulled away from the face. Begin just above the center of the forehead and use a faster pass going down the center of the face and letting go of the trigger just after the chin. Repeat the same pattern technique starting to the left of your initial pass. Then again to the right of your initial pass. Dry.

Side of face – Use one light pass, beginning gat the hair line just above the temple and smoothly release the trigger just past the chin. Repeat the same pattern technique starting to the left of your initial pass. Then again to the right of the initial pass. Dry.

Step 10 : Hands

Have the client position the hand to a bear claw position (fingers extended with a slight bend). Using a light circular motion, begin outside of the client’s hands in the air and lightly mist the clients had.

*Repeat the process on the other hand.

Step 11 : Feet

Use an “X” pattern and spray across the length of the foot beginning just under the ankle bone and releasing past the toes. Finish the other half of the “x” pattern beginning at the ankle bone on the opposite side of the foot.

*Repeat the process of the other foot.

Please watch the spray technique in this video provided by SJOLIE (Sunless Manufacturing Company)

Chapter 12 – Machine Maintenance

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It is very important for you to take care of your equipment. You made a rather substantial investment in the equipment, and without it your business cannot operate.

Turbine Maintenance

All HVLP machines will have a removable air filter that needs to be cleaned or changed on a consistent basis. All manufacturers will have different maintenance schedules. Be sure to review your operations manual thoroughly. Most filters are washable, and can be cleaned under warm water. Let the filter completely air dry before placing back into the machine.

 

Applicator Maintenance

Basic cleaning is recommended for the gun at the end of each day. Do not let the gun sit overnight with the solution in it. DHA is a sugar based substance, so it will stick to parts, tubes and the needle inside your gun.

Take the gun to a sink and unscrew the cup from the gun. Remaining solution should be kept in an air tight container, but not the original bottle the solution came in. Once the solution has been exposed to air, the oxidation process has begun. Pouring the exposed solution back into the original container could shorten the life of the solution. After you take the cup off the gun, pull the trigger and the remaining solution in the gun will flow out of the pickup tube applicator. Always hold the gun over the sink at all times.

Turn the gun upside down and let luke-warm water run the pickup tube and out of the needle. You will notice water coming from the gun is a brown color, this is good. This means that the water is pushing the remaining solution out of the gun. When water passing through the gun is no longer brown, the leftover solution has been drained. Turn the gun right side up and pull the trigger. The remaining water should flow out of the applicator. Let gun airdry for next use.

Daily cleaning done to HVLP systems is good for prevention of buildup or clogging within the applicator. Per manufacturers instruction, it is best to take the applicator apart for a thorough clean every two – three weeks. Each gun has its own set of cleaning procedures which are broken down by the manufacturer or your solution provider. It is important to disassemble the gun away from the skin, disposal or anywhere small pieces may get lost. WE recommend taking the gun apart over a clean towel, cloth or paper towel. Once the pieces are apart, it is best to soak them in warm water and cleaning solution for 30 minutes – 1 hour. You should lay all pieces out on a clean towel and cover them to dry.

Allow enough time for all pieces to dry before reassembling your applicator. For in depth cleaning instructions for your specific applicator be sure to refer to your manufacturers technical support documents or customer service phone number for a further breakdown.

Apollo T5020 Applicator Video - How to Clean and Maintain
Apollo T6000 Applicator Video - How to Clean and Maintain

Tent Maintenance

To prolong the life of your mobile tanning tent, it is best to wipe the inside of the tent with a damp towel or disposable after each use. For a more thorough cleaning, simply hose off the outside and inside of the tent in an appropriate area. You can also use a mixture of soap and water or alcohol to wipe away buildup of any residue your tanning tent may have.

Filtration System

Most filtration systems will have cleaning instructions per item model. However, some are very simple and can be washed with warm water or hosed off. It is recommended to clean filters often to ensure the filter is working to the best of its abilities in eliminating overspray and product application to unwanted areas.

Chapter 13 – Product Care

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All solutions work different. Check with your solution manufacture for specifics. Generally, the shorter the shelf life, the fewer preservatives. It is very important to keep any products containing DHA out of any direct light or heat source. Heat, light and oxidation are the main variables that can change the overall effectiveness and shelf life of DHA. If you were to leave a container open for extended period, you would probably notice green tint to the solution. This is the result of DHA being exposed to the air for far too long. The ideal storage spot would be a dark closet or cabinet, that is somewhere around 65-75 F. Do not store in; garage, basement, or car where the temperature fluctuates.

Some prefer storing solution in the refrigerator, which is a good storage spot if there is room; however, it is not necessary. Be sure that the refrigerator is not too cold to where the solution would begin to freeze. If the solution starts to freeze, take it out of the refrigerator and let sit at room temperature until it has completely thawed. When using solution stored in refrigerator, allow enough time for the solution to come to room temperature prior to spraying clients. Cold solution is not favorable and highly uncomfortable.

The solution SHOULD NOT exceed 80F.

Product Transportation

When transporting solution, it is important to keep them out of the heat as much as possible. You should only take with you the amount of solution needed for your appointments. Transporting in an ice chest with freezer packs is recommended. Once the solution is exposed to air, the oxidation process has begun.

Chapter 14 – Business and Marketing

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Whether you are starting a mobile tanning business or a brick and mortar sunless tanning salon, there are things to consider prior to starting (we are assuming you have already drawn up an extensive business plan including target marketing, investment and a good business name).

Business name and standing

You must decide which type of legal entity you wish to be (LLC, Sole Proprietorship, Corporation, Ect.). Once you decide on the type of entity you wish to be, you must file the proper paperwork with state agencies. You then need to go to your local county clerk and register the business name. You will then obtain a federal tax ID number from the IRS, which will allow you to purchase wholesale goods. The cost to do this is typically reasonable, but will differ based on your location. After obtaining a Federal Tax ID, you must also acquire a State Tax ID. You can always visit SDA.gov for more information.

Insurance

Insuring your business is recommended to anyone who is getting into the sunless industry. Mobile technicians will be operating in different homes and businesses on a daily basis, be sure you are protected against any unforeseen incidents. The type of coverage you will want to carry will provide you with general liability, as well as product and property liability. The cost varies from company to company, but can be anywhere from $200-$1000 per year. Consider the following types of liability when choosing a coverage plan:

General Liability

Products Liability

Professional Liability

Property Liability

Mobile Operations Liability

Most insurance companies quote typically $300-$500 per year for a $300,000 policy. This will all depend on which provider you choose as well as how much liability you wish to have covered.

*Please note NSTPA is not acting as a legal asset in any way. The information provided is basic and is only meant to help guide you in a direction best suited for you. You should seek legal advice before you move forward to ensure you are making the correct decision.

Marketing

There are various ways to market your sunless business in today’s world. This is your opportunity to brand your business and set yourself apart from the competition. The essence of effective marketing is to understand the wants and needs of the consumer, and then develop a plan. Researching your local market is a good way to determine the type of marketing that will be most beneficial. This will also give you an idea for your price point.

Free Marketing – Social media has many advantages, the biggest one being that it is free!  Use this free resource to your build your business.  If you currently have an Instagram account and you post here and there, start beefing up your posts and post frequency in order to gain a bigger following.  Research popular hashtags people in the industry use so you can gain traction.  Instagram also has the option to modify your account to include contact information in your ‘Bio’ section.  This makes it easy for potential clients to contact you for services.

Website – It is vital to have a web presence for your business. Recent surveys find that over 80% of potential customers find their services via search engines, such as google. Think about it; if you were searching for a service and you couldn’t find more than an out-of-date Facebook page, or a few Yelp reviews, would you trust them to provide current services?  Probably not.  In fact, you might think of the other things in which the business might not be current.  To the consumer, a business should be current on all platforms, including the use of social media and marketing.

Marketing Materials – Marketing materials are another effective way to attract and keep your client base.  Partner with local salons and leave your brochures at their stations, or in treatment rooms. If you are already in a salon offering services other than spray tanning, leave rack cards about sunless tanning at the reception desk.  Hang posters as part of your salon/boutique decor, this is a great way to market your sunless service.  Make sure that the materials you use are trendy and current.  You can make your own materials, or purchase them through your sunless manufacturer if they offer them.  These materials will help to catch the attention of clients who might not otherwise think to go sunless.

Local Businesses – There are plenty of business that are included in the beauty industry that may never consider offering spray tanning as a service. This is a great opportunity for you and your business. You should visit and introduce yourself, explain to them the type of service you will offer, Local med spas, gyms, and day spas may be willing to outsource this service to you. This will give you opportunity to market your business and get exposure to their clientele for little or no cost! You can also cross advertise with other companies by working with local photographers, florists, caterers, bakeries, event planners, travel agents, ect. Anyone using the businesses mentioned could use a tan for some type of occasion!

Be a walking billboard – Just as you would expect fitness trainers to practice what they teach, you should too. Use yourself as a marketing tool.  If you are marketing your sunless services, it is only going to benefit you if you use sunless yourself.  Weather you spray yourself, or use a retail line you are selling, be sure to promote products you use and genuinely love, when promoting your services.

Free tans – When you are first starting out it is important to offer free tans to family and friends to advertise your business. Word of mouth marketing is one of the most powerful marketing tools. Think of this as a marketing expense, not a waste of solution!

Host a tanning party – If you are just starting out in sunless, you are going to need to get people to buy into your brand before they start flocking to you for services.  A great way to “sample” out your skills and products is to host a tanning party.  Gather a few close friends and family who would love a free tan.  Use the time with them to talk about your products and show them how they work.  Once they leave, they have transformed into FREE marketing.  This is how word-of-mouth starts which is a highly effective form of marketing; watch your reputation and business grow!

Pricing your services

As beauticians and entrepreneurs around the world step into the sunless industry we all have that common question in mind, “How much do I charge for my services?”. Pricing is determined after you have conducted extensive research in your local market. And although there is no set formula on how to price your services and products, there are a combination of factors to consider ensuring your price points are structured correctly.

Competition – Scope out your completion to strategically price your services. What is everyone else charging? What’s the lowest cost of service? What’s the highest cost of service?  You should market your services between that high/low mark. Having a competitive price point is a great leg up on your local competition.  Be careful when creating a price point extremely low, as it could discredit your service.

Your Location – Location will play a big factor in pricing your products and services. Ask yourself these key questions:

  1. Where do you plan on executing your services?
  2. Is this area densely populated, or more rural?
  3. Will clients be required to drive out of the main city/town?
  4. Does this location have much foot/drive by traffic?

If your location is more isolated, it could potentially inconvenience consumers and ultimately result in a loss of business.  Having a location in a densely-populated area, or in a common area of town may be ideal for a higher standing on the pricing ladder.

If your sunless business will be mobile, technicians should always factor in drive time, gas and distance into their pricing. When pricing services, try setting a base price and be sure to make your clients aware that this base price does not include the time, gas and distance factors. Technicians should collect additional information to accurately add travel expenses to the quoted tan price. Always give your client a final quote including travel expensive before venturing to the location where the client will be receiving their service.

Another option for mobile technicians is to set a price scale for the service. Maybe the average price of tanning service is $35 after travel expenses are applied. Let clients know verbally and include on your price sheets, that tans range from $25-$55. When creating a price range, it is always best to give clients a larger maximum price so when you do tell them their service price, they are under the impression that they’re still getting a great deal!

The customer – Your pricing strategy will largely depend on your clientele. Be sure to analyze what type of clientele you will be performing your services on. Will you have a diverse type of clientele, or will you focus on the higher end clients only? What are these customers willing to pay? Meet clients in the middle. It’s not necessarily a good idea to charge clients the maximum price they’re willing to pay. It is also vital to know what your client is paying for when they come to you for services.  What is it that the client is paying for?  Is it the customer service you provide them? The quality of the service? The location? Or the quality of product you use for your business? Customers are willing to pay when they are offered something they can’t get elsewhere, whether that be service, or product related.

The profit – Do not be ashamed to want to make a profit! Profit is essential to running a successful business. Take into consideration price of product, supplies, marketing materials and any additional tools you use to successfully keep your business running. Pricing of services should cover these essential expenses while still providing you with some green!

Know your worth – Do you perform and provide the perfect service? Be sure to give yourself the deserving credit when developing your service/product prices. Setting your price point too low may cheapen your brand/reputation. Don’t be afraid to set your pricing a bit higher if you believe you provide excellent services worthy of that price point.  The sunless Industry has grown tremendously over the years and it will only continue to flourish.  Enter with confidence! Equip yourself with the necessary knowledge and tools to make your business a successful one. Always keep in mind, pricing is always adjustable as you continue to grow.

Client Retention

Email List – Create an email list to keep in contact with your clients. This will allow you to update clients with your monthly promotions and keep their attention even when sunless tanning is not on their mind.

Share your knowledge – Inform your client on the benefits of sunless tanning. Spreading your knowledge to others will not only prove you know what you are doing but it will also help clients realize that this is a healthy alternative to sun tanning that will keep them and their skin healthy and thriving. You’re not only selling, you’re teaching!

Loyalty program – A loyalty program is a great incentive for clients to continue their services more than just once. A loyalty program will make clients want to splurge on themselves when they know there is a payoff at the end! You can even print loyalty business cards to keep track of your clients visit.

Pre-purchase tanning packages – Everyone loves a discount. Create a sunless package where clients can pre-purchase a handful of tans at a discounted price. This puts money in your pocket and reassures that client WILL be back.

Pre-book – Pre-book. Pre-book. Pre-book. Scheduling a client’s next tan is an awesome customer service tool that will work in your favor and theirs. Whether the client is not sure if they want to come back or not, reserving their next spot gives you a 50/50 chance that client will return. The appointment is not set in stone so they can change it as the day gets closer, but they will leave knowing they have a time reserved! Having a scheduled appointment is also helpful to the client, it will be something on their to do list that they don’t need to worry about scheduling.

Follow up – Following up with clients will be your biggest beneficial factor. Keep in touch with clients by providing a follow up phone call, text or email to check in on how their sunless tan turned out. You can even provide reminder calls for appointment, and provide 1 or 2 week follow up calls which you can also use to book their next appointment.

Chapter 2 – The history of sunless

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Natural Bronzers

The natural bronzers and dyes in a sunless product prove beneficial in several ways. First, they act as a color guide for you as product is applied to the client. You can instantly see where you are spraying, thus, significantly minimizing error.  Bronzers also act as an instant day of color for the client. Lastly, the dyes aid in leaving the most natural sunless tan possible by dying the skin for several days.

What is DHA and how does it work

Dihydroxyacetone or DHA, also known as glycerone, is a simple carbohydrate.  It is typically derived from sugar beets and sugar cane.  This skin browning effect is non-toxic, and similar to the Maillard reaction.  DHA reacts chemically with the amino acids in the skin, which are part of the protein containing keratin layer on the skin surface.  Various amino acids react differently to DHA, producing different tones of coloration from yellow to brown.  The resulting pigments are called melanoidans.  These are similar in coloration to melanin, the natural substance in the deeper skin layers which brown or “tan”, from exposure to UV rays.

History of DHA

DHA was first recognized as a skin coloring agent by German scientists in the 1920s.  Through its use in the x-ray process, it was noted as causing the skin surface to turn brown when spilled.

In the 1950s, Eva Wittgenstein at the University of Cincinnati did further research with dihydroxyacetone. Her studies involved using DHA as an oral drug for assisting children with glycogen storage disease.  The children received large doses of DHA by mouth, and sometimes spat or spilled the substance onto their skin.  Healthcare workers noticed that the skin turned brown after a few hours of DHA exposure.

Eva Wittgenstein continued to experiment with DHA, painting the liquid solutions onto her own skin. She was able to consistently reproduce the pigmentation effect, and noted that DHA did not penetrate beyond the stratum corneum, or dead skin surface layer. Research continued on DHA’s skin coloring effect in relation to treatment for patients suffering from vitiligo.

Chapter 3 – Forms of application

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AIRBRUSH

An airbrush unit works with a compressor and pen or wand like device. This unit can also be used to apply make-up, temporary tattoos and spray tan solution. This type of sunless application can be time consuming.

HVLP

High Volume, Low Pressure. These systems deliver air, generated by a turbine to the applicator via a flexible hose. This is an effective way to apply a custom spray tan.

 

Spray Booth

In commercial spray tanning booths, consumers receive an application of DHA in the form of a full body mist. There is typically only one type of solution for all skin tones

 

Self-Application

Tanning solutions in the form of lotions, gels, mousses and wipes are hand applied, and require practice and patience. This method can be difficult to apply consistently over the entire body.

 

Chapter 4 – Government regulations

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DHA is FDA approved for topical use.  Answering these questions will let you know if you and your client are properly protected:

  •  Are consumers protected from exposure in the entire area of the eyes, in addition to the eyes themselves?
  •  Are consumers protected from exposure on the lips and all parts of the body covered by mucous membrane?
  •  Are consumers protected from internal exposure caused by inhaling or ingesting the product?

Please read the excerpt below from FDA.gov:

DHA is listed in the regulations as a color additive for use in imparting color to the human body. However, its use in cosmetics–including sunless “tanning” products–is restricted to external application (21 CFR 73.2150). According to the CFR, “externally applied” cosmetics are those “applied only to external parts of the body and not to the lips or any body surface covered by mucous membrane” (21 CFR 70.3v). The industry has not provided safety data to FDA in order for the agency to consider approving it for use on these exposure routes, including “misting” from tanning booths.

In addition, no color additive may be used in cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye unless the color additive is permitted specifically for such use (21 CFR 70.5a) DHA is not permitted for use in the area of the eye. The CFR defines “area of the eye” as follows:

“the area enclosed within the circumference of the supra-orbital ridge, including the eyebrow, the skin below the eyebrow, the eyelids and the eyelashes, and conjunctival sac of the eye, the eyeball, and the soft areolar tissue that lies within the perimeter of the infra-orbital ridge.” (21 CFR 70.3s)

As with the lips and other areas covered by mucous membrane, the industry has not provided safety data to FDA in order for the agency to consider approving it for use in the area of the eye.

 

It is suggested to keep your staff informed and up to date on FDA recommendations and regulations. For any other questions please feel free to ask us.  You may also visit the FDA’s website.

DHA based sunless tanning has been recommended by the Skin Cancer Foundation, the American Academy of Dermatology Association, the Canadian Dermatology Association and the American Medical Association.

DHA is Listed in the regulations as a color additive for use in imparting color to the human body. However, its use in cosmetics—including sunless “tanning” product—is restricted to external application (21 CFR 73.2150). According to the CFR, “externally applied” cosmetics are those “applied only to external parts of the body and not to the lips or anybody surface covered by mucous membrane” (21 CFR 70.3v). The industry has not provided safety data to FDA in orde21r for the agency to consider approving it for use on those exposure routs, including “misting” from tanning booths. In addition, no color additive may be used in cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eyes unless the color additive is permitted specifically for such use (21 CFR 70.5a). DHA is not permitted for use in the area of the eye. The CFR defines “area of the eye” as follows: “The area enclosed within the circumference of the supra-orbital ridge, including the eyebrow, the skin below the eyebrow, the eyelids and the eyelashes, and the conjunctival sac of the eye, the eyeball, and the soft areolar tissue that lies within the perimeter of the infra-orbital ridge.” (21 CFR 70.3s) as with the lips and other areas covered by mucous membrane, the industry has not provided safety data to FDA in order for the agency to consider approving it for use in the area of the eye.

Chapter 5 – Knowledge of the Skin

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First things first....

Prior to moving forward with a business in sunless, take the steps necessary to educate yourself on the impact the sun can have on the skin. It is important to have a strong understanding in this area, so you as the technician can properly educate clients on the importance of sun protection and the benefits of healthier sun tanning alternatives.

The skin is our body’s first line of defense designed to protect us from outside elements. The skin is composed of two main layers, epidermis and the dermis.

The epidermis is the outermost later of the skin. This thin epithelial layer of tissue is composed of 5 layers, the uppermost layer is called the Stratum Corneum. This epidermis/Stratum Corneum layer of the skin is the layer effected by sunless solution when applied. The deepest layer of the epidermis is referred to as the stratum Basale, or basal layer. This layer is NOT affected during sunless tanning.

HOW THE SKIN PRODUCES COLOR:

Pigment granules called melanosomes produce a protein called Melanin that serves as a brown pigment to the skin. These melanin cells are produced by melanocyte stimulating hormones and are created as a defense mechanism to protect the body’s DNA from the sun. Melanocyte cells make melanosome spheres which are transferred to keratinocytes, these provide the skins color.

Keratinocytes, composed of keratin, makeup most of the epidermis. These cells contain proteins and lipids. These proteins have dried and hardened, they also lack certain cell characteristics, you will often hear these cells referred to as “dead skin cells”.

The body can produce two types of melanin: Pheomelanin (red to yellow in color) and Eumelanin (dark brown to black in color). Lighter skins tones tend to produce more pheomelanin, while darker tones produce more eumelanin.

A tan is visible because melanin produced is transferred into the uppermost cells through “branches” that move up towards the skins surface creating darker pigmentation.

Effects of the sun

The sun plays a big part of how our skin ages. UV exposure is proven to alter DNA, show premature signs of aging, create damage to the eyes, and of course a more chronic condition; cause cancer. It is important to realize that the sun produces two types of ultraviolet radiation (UV rays) which work in their own ways. Both are absorbed, dispersed and reflected by the skin.

UVA: Ultraviolet Aging Rays

These long wavelengths penetrate the skin at deeper layers than UVB rays. UVA rays are known to weaken collagen and elastin fibers which cause wrinkles and sagging to the skin.

UVB: Ultraviolet Burning Rays

Ultraviolet Burning Rays create bodily reactions such as burning, aging and cancer to the skin. Penetration of these rays are not as deep as UVA rays BUT they are stronger and more damaging. These rays deliver more energy at a higher frequency making them more dangerous than the UVA. UVB rays are beneficial in small dosages as it does contribute to production of Vitamin D.

Sun Protection

Be sure to inform your sunless clients that sunless solution does not contain sunscreen. Proper sun protection should be applied and reapplied throughout the day. Sunless tans DO NOT prevent sun burns or sun damage.

Consider this when purchasing your next sunscreen

Physical Sunscreens contain mineral ingredients like zinc oxide and titanium dioxide which work by sitting on the top of the skin and deflecting UV rays away from the skin (aka physical blockers).

Benefits: instant protection from the sun and no wait time needed once applied, protects from UVA and UVB rays, less likely to be pore clogging, beneficial for acne or sensitive skin types.

Cons: easy rub off, will sweat and rinse off easily, can cause thick white lotion appearance on the skin, can also be less protective if not applied generously and frequently.

Chemical Sunscreens contain carbon-based compounds such as octinoxate, oxybenzone, and octisalate. Chemical sunscreens work to change UVA Rays into heat and releasing them from the skin in the form of a heat.

Benefits: thinner product making easier spread, less product needed (great for under makeup).

Cons: Requires 20 minutes to absorb and begin working to fight against UV rays, increase of irritation for those with sensitive or acne prone skin.

Two ingredients commonly found in sunscreen that you will want your clients to avoid when using on their sunless tan are Alcohols and Oils. Alcohol and oil will break down the integrity of your sunless tan and cause uneven fading/streaking and alligator looking skin. Unfortunately, many sunscreens contain these ingredients; however, sunscreens without harsh alcohols and oils do exist! Check with your sunless solution provider to see if a spray tan safe sunscreen is offered in their line. If not, try searching for sunscreens that claim oil free, hypoallergenic, or fragrance free when shopping for your next spray tan friendly sunscreen.